The use of chemicals, biologicals and veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) helps in healthy and sustainable fish production. Information on the use of these products is essential for assessing farming practices, potential human health and environmental risks. A questionnaire-based nationwide survey covering aquaculture farms (n=2936) producing carps, tilapia, pangasius and rainbow trout in freshwater and shrimp in brackishwater estimated the use of 52 different types of inputs which included disinfectants (597 g t-1), probiotics (2.28 kg t-1), environmental modifiers (22.82 kg t-1), nutritional supplements (1.96 kg t-1), natural anti-infective agents (293 g t-1), herbicide and piscicides (844 g t-1), antibiotics (2 mg PCU-1), antifungal (4 mg PCU-1), and antiparasitic (14 mg PCU-1) agents. The bulk of these inputs was used for soil and water quality improvement and had low environmental and human safety concerns. The multivariate analysis revealed significant variation in the frequency and quantity of compounds use among farm groups. Redundancy analysis revealed a significant association between the number of products used and stocking density. The survey also showed a considerable influence of education and farming experience on the usage pattern of aquaculture inputs. Results of the study indicated greater reliance of farmers on the use of disinfectants for biosecurity, nutritional supplements for enhanced growth and environmental modifiers for maintaining soil and water quality in culture systems. Though there was no use of restricted antibiotics and antiparasitic agents, the development and implementation of standard regulatory guidelines are essential for safe and effective use of inputs for sustainable aquaculture.

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